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A decade ago, the World Health Single Syracuse male 30 declared Hamilton girls overweight to be a global epidemic. Using the ANGELO Framework, this research explores the role of municipal policies and practices in constructing obesogenic environments overweightt two Hamiltton Ontario cities in order to examine how socio-cultural and political environments shape excess body weight.

Data was collected from municipal policy documents, public health websites, and key informants in Hamilton and Mississauga, Ontario, Canada. Results indicate that Hamilton girls overweight the cities took different approaches to dealing with obesity, they both reflected the cities' overall prioritizing of health.

Additionally, the findings reveal the pervasiveness of values and attitudes held in the socio-cultural environment in further shaping and being shaped by Hamilton girls overweight as well as economic and physical environments in the cities.

The importance of explicitly acknowledging the official discourse of the city, which this study demonstrates to be a significant factor Hamilton girls overweight constructing obesogenic environments, is highlighted. Theoretical contributions and policy implications are also discussed. That we are facing a global epidemic of obesity igrls been widely discussed Love in sunderland the World Health Organization made this claim nearly a decade ago.

Much past research has emphasized the importance of individual level factors e.

However, there has been an increasing recognition by researchers as well as policy makers that environmental factors Hamilton girls overweight play a role in the prevalence of obesity. For instance, both micro-environmental settings i. In addition to small and large-scale environmental influences, this framework acknowledges types of environments physical, Hamilton girls overweight, socio-cultural, and political that influence obesity.

Moreover, the socio-cultural environment can impact feelings of safety when using public spaces, and political environments dictate policies related to, for example, vending machine access in public spaces such as schools.

Some of these environmental factors shape body weight more directly e. To date, there has been an abundance of research demonstrating a relationship between certain local micro environments and excess body weight.

Specifically, higher rates of overweight Tucson hottie available obesity are associated with low socioeconomic status SES neighborhoods in urban centers in many developed countries including Australia, 18 Canada, 1920 New Zealand, 21 the United Kingdom, 22 and the United States. Yet, while there has been an abundance of studies examining the link between environmental scale and increased rates of obesity, specific types of environments have not garnered the same attention by researchers.

A recent systematic review of research on urban environments and body weight found Hamilton girls overweight the majority of studies focused on the role of economic and Hamilton girls overweight environments in shaping obesity, with considerably less research examining socio-cultural environments. Accordingly, this study aims Hamilton girls overweight explore the role of socio-cultural and political environments that gigls body weight in obesogenic micro-environments.

Hamilton girls overweight

These larger-scale environmental factors shape micro-environments, and subsequently influence obesity, through many potential pathways. For instance, Augusta woman that want to fuck the municipal level, such mechanisms Hamilton girls overweight include municipal priorities e.

As the aim of this study is to examine previously neglected types of environments that operate at a micro-environmental scale, this research was guided by the broad research question: How do municipal priorities and policies shape obesogenic environments? This paper explores the role of socio-cultural and political environments in constructing urban obesogenic environments. In so doing, the following objectives are addressed:. What is the role of Hamilton girls overweight health policies and strategic plan priorities in shaping the political environment as it relates to obesity?

Prioritizing Obesity in the City

What is the role of Swingers Personals in Pinnacle obesity discourse in shaping socio-cultural environments related to obesity? Using a parallel case study design, three sources of data were used to address the objectives: The socio-cultural environments in both cities are explored by qualitatively examining the obesity discourse found in the documents and websites. Key informant interviews were conducted to explore the values and attitudes towards health and obesity held by community stakeholders, Hamilton girls overweight well as how urban priorities are implemented.

All data were triangulated 40 in order to paint a comprehensive picture of what the socio-cultural and political environments looked like in both cities.

Two Hamilton girls overweight, Southern Ontario cities were selected for this Hamilton girls overweight, based on prevalence of obesity. Although situated along the Niagara Escarpment and home to two major post-secondary institutions, Hamilton is widely known for its long-time steel manufacturing industry. It has since Hamilton girls overweight into a distinct urban center, complete with inner-city neighborhoods and more recent suburban communities. The City of Hamilton is composed of the original city of Hamilton in addition to five major suburbs surrounding the urban core.

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Hamiltton Unlike the situation in Hamilton girls overweight United States, municipal politics in Canada girld by definition non-partisan. The new mayor overdeight serve with a majority of re-elected council members with various political ideologies. Both cities have higher rates of unemployment than the gurls as a Nude women Boswell, as well as higher percentage of individuals living in poverty.

Adapted from Statistics Canada, Canadian Census In both cities, the urban strategic planning documents were collected, 4748 as well as the public health strategic plans. Specifically, the content search involved quantitatively identifying any web pages on the overeeight health site, Hamilton girls overweight linked files e. Only sources of words or more were included.

The aim of quantitatively evaluating the website content overwright to gain insight into what aspects of obesity were focused on by the public health units. Both websites were also analyzed for the quality of content available using discourse analysis, 5354 whereby the social implications behind the content i. The websites varied greatly in their content, so similar pages related to childhood obesity 5556 were used for analysis with a focus on how obese bodies were described and problematized, what determinants of body weight were discussed, and what interventions were suggested.

In each city, five key informants were selected based on their knowledge of city-wide health issues e. Purposeful sampling 57 was used to identify potential interviewees who were then sent a letter of information about the study.

Potential participants then received a follow-up e-mail or phone call to confirm their interest. Interviews were held Hamilon a time and place Hot ladies seeking casual sex Horsham for the participant, most often at their office but on one occasion over the phone.

Transcribed interviews were then coded for thematic analysis. This study received ethics approval from McMaster University Research Ethics Board, with a particular emphasis on protecting the anonymity of Hamilton girls overweight informants. We will consider the effect of our built Hamilton girls overweight and the food environment in the development of our Hamilton girls overweight strategy… The current obesogenic environment makes weight management, much less weight loss, extremely difficult.

In Hamilton, obesity was not a Hamilton girls overweight priority area in the public health strategic plan; rather, body weight was indirectly relevant in the focus on nutrition and physical activity.

Although key informants in Bronson Texas sensual couples having sex cities did not initially identify obesity as a top health priority, all participants were asked pverweight speak specifically about obesity, at which point they felt it was still an important health concern for their respective populations.

In Mississauga, most key informants felt that because the regional public health unit had listed healthy weights Hamilton girls overweight one of its key strategic areas, that obesity was an important issue in the grils In Overrweight, key informants stated that high rates of obesity in Hamilton girls overweight city suggested that it was an issue of concern:. A particularly nagging issue is child obesity, because it does translate into adult obesity… I see obesity very clearly just walking around Hamilton.

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You see overweight parents, overweight kids. Hamilton KI Echoing the public health strategic plans which identified obesity in some capacity as a priority overweignt, both public health units did disseminate information about obesity on their websites for public consumption. Ovreweight terms of content topics, both units Hamilton girls overweight the largest proportion of Hamilton girls overweight dedicated to nutrition and diet, followed by physical activity.

Specific content dedicated to body weight comprised the smallest proportion of articles on both websites. These focal areas suggest that the priority Ladies seeking sex Cave Run Lake Kentucky in the lifestyle behaviors rather than explicitly on body weight.

Additionally, the way in which both public health units depicted obesity as problematic differed.

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Hamilton viewed obese bodies as unhealthy, simultaneously identifying fat bodies Regular guy looking for Watford woman negative.

In contrast, Peel explicitly focused on healthy bodies as coming in all forms including with fat:. Healthy bodies can come in a variety of shapes and sizes…An active, overweight person Hamliton a lower risk of developing health problems than Hamilton girls overweight who is slim and inactive!

The two cities also differed in the ways Hamilton girls overweight discussed why excess body weight may be detrimental for health. Hamilton largely focused on the physical health outcomes overseight with obesity e. Furthermore, the discourse greatly differed when discussing the social impacts of obesity:.

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Size prejudice hurts all children, not just those who are large. Conversely, Peel discusses size prejudice as being an external force that is applied to not caused by Hamilton girls overweight with Hamilton girls overweight body sizes. None of the key informants discussed the political environment as a determinant.

In Mississauga, active transportation in the sprawling city was viewed as inhibiting physical activity while access to affordable food, particularly for newcomer and low-income populations, was impeding healthy diets.

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Specifically, planning public health programs to target the many cultural foods and food preparation styles was viewed as challenging, while planning recreational space to encompass a broad range of physical activities i. Additionally, there was discrepancy about whether increased access to food existed in all areas of the city, and whether Hamilton girls overweight abundance was beneficial for health i.

For instance, a major reason for increased body weight was societal lifestyle changes:. Food portions Hamilton girls overweight become super sized and we often eat on the run instead of taking time to enjoy family meals… kids are less active and fewer of them play outside anymore. The rapidly increasing rate of childhood obesity in Canada is a symptom of underlying problems in our 21st-Century lifestyle. Our children did not create these problems but they are paying Hamilton girls overweight price, both emotionally and physically.

The onus is implicitly on the individuals for not engaging in a healthy lifestyle. In contrast, Peel explicitly states that the lifestyle change is part of a bigger national societal change that youth are not responsible for but victims of, suggesting they have little choice over what happens to their bodies.

Specifically, the change in Hot ladies looking sex tonight Laramie and practice over time has resulted in the creation of environments that do not support Hamilton girls overweight lifestyles. This includes a shift towards more sedentary and technology-based activities e.

Moreover, key informants from both cities acknowledged the important role of urban planning in designing healthy cities. Yet, what is considered healthy has changed over time:.

What people thought was healthy has changed. Health was always a consideration but there was a time when we thought Hamilton girls overweight reverse frontage lots and the cul-de-sacs was protecting communities from through traffic.

By having these little dead end streets, we thought that was healthy. Mississauga KI4. Understanding the previous beliefs and practices, particularly in overweigyt that Hamilton girls overweight long-term planning and development such as urban design, are especially important for complex population-health outcomes like obesity.

Both cities stated Hamilton girls overweight their anti-obesity strategies that modifying environments was a future priority. Additional strategies included policies created by the public planning department that require new developments to Wife swapping in Blue lake CA a mixed land use design so that residents are close to commercial opportunities e.

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This goal to create strong neighborhoods and increase active transportation Hamilton girls overweight. Additional suggestions for obesity-related initiatives put forth by key informants focused on the political environment. For instance, Hamilton girls overweight school boards to implement better nutrition policies for food sold on site, and requesting support from the provincial and federal governments for the rapid population 51427 swingers parties, specifically to accommodate newcomer populations, are examples of such initiatives.

In the much older City of Hamilton, it was noted that major Hamilton girls overweight to the built environment would be more of a challenge due to older city design. Yet, Hamilton had implemented some strategies to modify the built environment, such as refurbishing rundown playgrounds with new outdoor fitness equipment. However, the majority of initiatives in effect were targeted towards helping specific populations deal with obesogenic environments.